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George Orwell Essays Sparknotes Brave

Barfoot, C. C., ed. Aldous Huxley between East and West. New York/Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2001.

This is a collection of scholarly essays that examines Huxley's interest in and study of Western and Eastern religions.

Booker, M. Keith. The Dystopian Impulse in Modern Literature. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1994.

This work is a study of dystopias in literature as social critiques, including Brave New World.

———. Dytopian Literature. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1994

This is a reference work that summarizes and analyzes a number of examples of dystopian literature.

De Koster, Katie, ed. Readings on Brave New World. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1999.

This is a guide to reading and understanding Brave New World. It includes critical essays about the novel, a bibliography with primary and secondary resources on Brave New World, and a timeline of Aldous Huxley's life.

Deery, June. Aldous Huxley and the Mysticism of Science. London: Macmillan, 1996.

This critical work examines Huxley's writings to determine his beliefs and ideas about the relationship between science and religion in the twentieth century.

Huxley, Aldous. Brave New World Revisited. New York: HarperCollins, reprint edition 2006.

This is a work of nonfiction Huxley wrote thirty years after Brave New World came out. He considers its influence and how the world has changed since the time of the novel's writing.

———. Island. New York: Harper, 1962.

Many readers consider Island to be a utopian companion to Brave New World’s dystopia. In this novel, Huxley offers a society on a fictional island as a space in between the conceptual extremes of Fordist civilization and the Savage Reservation of Brave New World.

Meckier, Jerome. Critical Essays on Aldous Huxley. Boston: G. K. Hall & Company, 1996.

This volume contains original critical essays and historical reviews on Huxley's works.

Moylan, Tom. Scraps of the Untainted Sky: Science Fiction, Utopia, Dystopia. Boulder: Westview Press, 2000.

This scholarly work considers a number of science fictions, including utopias and dystopias, published in the twentieth century.

Orwell, George. 1984. New York: Knopf, 1992.

George Orwell's novel 1984 was greatly influenced by Brave New World and examines the dangers of a totalitarian state.

Born Eric Blair in India in 1903, George Orwell was educated as a scholarship student at prestigious boarding schools in England. Because of his background—he famously described his family as “lower-upper-middle class”—he never quite fit in, and felt oppressed and outraged by the dictatorial control that the schools he attended exercised over their students’ lives. After graduating from Eton, Orwell decided to forego college in order to work as a British Imperial Policeman in Burma. He hated his duties in Burma, where he was required to enforce the strict laws of a political regime he despised. His failing health, which troubled him throughout his life, caused him to return to England on convalescent leave. Once back in England, he quit the Imperial Police and dedicated himself to becoming a writer.

Inspired by Jack London’s 1903 book The People of the Abyss, which detailed London’s experience in the slums of London, Orwell bought ragged clothes from a second-hand store and went to live among the very poor in London. After reemerging, he published a book about this experience, entitled Down and Out in Paris and London. He later lived among destitute coal miners in northern England, an experience that caused him to give up on capitalism in favor of democratic socialism. In 1936, he traveled to Spain to report on the Spanish Civil War, where he witnessed firsthand the nightmarish atrocities committed by fascist political regimes. The rise to power of dictators such as Adolf Hitler in Germany and Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union inspired Orwell’s mounting hatred of totalitarianism and political authority. Orwell devoted his energy to writing novels that were politically charged, first with Animal Farm in 1945, then with 1984 in 1949.

1984 is one of Orwell’s best-crafted novels, and it remains one of the most powerful warnings ever issued against the dangers of a totalitarian society. In Spain, Germany, and the Soviet Union, Orwell had witnessed the danger of absolute political authority in an age of advanced technology. He illustrated that peril harshly in 1984. Like Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World (1932), 1984 is one of the most famous novels of the negative utopian, or dystopian, genre. Unlike a utopian novel, in which the writer aims to portray the perfect human society, a novel of negative utopia does the exact opposite: it shows the worst human society imaginable, in an effort to convince readers to avoid any path that might lead toward such societal degradation. In 1949, at the dawn of the nuclear age and before the television had become a fixture in the family home, Orwell’s vision of a post-atomic dictatorship in which every individual would be monitored ceaselessly by means of the telescreen seemed terrifyingly possible. That Orwell postulated such a society a mere thirty-five years into the future compounded this fear.

Of course, the world that Orwell envisioned in 1984 did not materialize. Rather than being overwhelmed by totalitarianism, democracy ultimately won out in the Cold War, as seen in the fall of the Berlin Wall and the disintegration of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s. Yet 1984 remains an important novel, in part for the alarm it sounds against the abusive nature of authoritarian governments, but even more so for its penetrating analysis of the psychology of power and the ways that manipulations of language and history can be used as mechanisms of control.

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